Dynamic Earth Sample Midterm 2

Test Key

1. Organic activity can aid both mechanical and chemical weathering
A. True B. False 

2. The product of hydrolysis of feldspar is
A. quartz
B. clay
C. hematite
D. amphibole

3. Soil developed on Canadian River sands and gravels is an example of
A. paleosol
B. parasol
C. residual soil
D. transported soil

4. Evaporites have a biochemical origin. 
A. True B. False 

5. Particle size is the primary basis for distinguishing among various clastic (detrital) sedimentary rocks.
A. True B. False 

6. A deep red soil of the tropics in which all silicates are completely altered, leaving mostly aluminum and iron oxides
A. pedalfer
B. pedocal
C. laterite
D. paleosol

7. The processes by which unconsolidated sediments are transformed into solid sedimentary rocks is
A. solifluction
B. compaction
C. lithification
D. cementation

8. Solution is an example of
A. mechanical weathering
B. chemical weathering
C. unloading
D. rude behavior at dinner

9. Sheeting (exfoliation, spalling) results from effects associated with unloading.
A. True B. False 

10. This rock group covers 75% of the continents.
A. igneous
B. metamorphic
C. sedimentary
D. The Spice Girls

11. Which of the following is not a common cement in sedimentary rocks?
A. hematite
B. calcite
C. halite
D. quartz

12. Which of the following is not a clastic (detrital) sedimentary rock? 
A. gypsum
B. conglomerate 
C. sandstone
D. shale

13. Clay minerals are a product of chemical weathering. 
A. True B. False 

14. During metamorphism, the material undergoing deformation remains a solid.
A. True B. False 

15. Earthflows are most common in arid and semiarid regions. 
A. True B. False 

16. Gravity plays an important role in all mass wasting events.
A. True B. False 

17. Metamorphic rocks possessing a mineral alignment that produces a layered or banded appearance are said to be
A. affiliated
B. striated
C. foliated
D. inebriated

18. Metamorphism can affect only sedimentary rocks.
A. True B. False 

19. Most limestone has a biochemical origin. 
A. True B. False 

20. The order in which the silicate minerals chemically weather is the same as their order of crystallization (i.e., first to weather is first to crystallize)
A. True B. False 

21. Rock salt and rock gypsum are common examples of a group of chemical sedimentary rocks called
A. halites
B. anhydrites
C. evaporites
D. Episcopalians 

22. Slump is the most rapid form of mass wasting.
A. True B. False 

23. Solifluction is more common in Alaska than in Florida. 
A. True B. False 

24. The downslope movement of rock, regolith, and soil under the direct influence of gravity is called
A. mass wasting
B. landslide
C. slump
D. earthflow

25. The most abundant sedimentary rock is shale.
A. True B. False 

26. The portion of the regolith that supports plant growth is known as
A. A horizonB. B horizonC. C horizonD. soil

27. Dissolved quartz may end up as 
A. silica cement
B. chert
C. quartz
D. all of the above

28. Stokes's Settling Law is , where a is particle size, Dr is density contrast, g is acceleration of gravity, and m is viscosity. Which will settle fastest in water? You should not have to make any calculations to answer this (in other words, how do grain size and density affect settling velocity?)
A. 2 mm calcite grain (density of calcite is 2.5 g/cm3)
B. 2 mm olivine grain (density of olivine is 3.3 g/cm3)
C. 4 mm calcite grain (density of calcite is 2.5 g/cm3)
D. 4 mm olivine grain (density of olivine is 3.3 g/cm3)

29. Frost wedging is an example of
A. mechanical weathering
B. chemical weatheringC. unloading
D. underwear that is too tight

30. Which weathers fastest?
A. andesite
B. basalt
C. granite
D. quartz

31. Chemical weathering would be most effective:
A. in a warm, dry climate
B. in a cold, dry climate
C. in a warm, humid climate
D. has the same effectiveness in any kind of climate 

32. What sedimentary rock is composed of the most abundant product of chemical weathering?
A. halite
B. shale
C. limestone
D. conglomerate 

33. Which one of the following is not true about mechanical weathering?
A. produces smaller pieces
B. adds to the effectiveness of chemical weathering
C. may lead to the formation of talus slopes
D. does not change the rock's mineral composition
E. does not affect metamorphic rocks 

34. Radial drainage is often associated with
A. streams developed on a volcano
B. a joint or fracture system with a regular pattern
C. homogeneous, smooth topography
D. a leak in your radiator 

35. Which one of the following organisms would have the best chance of being preserved as part of the fossil record?
A. bird
B. worm
C. clam
D. moth
E. a boxer's ear 

36. A graded bed:
A. has coarser particles at the bottom and finer particles at the top
B. has finer particles at the bottom and coarser particles at the top
C. exhibits uniform particle sizes throughout
D. is the same as a cross bed
E. is the bed you made after Mom told you to

37. Which of the following lists presents forms of coal in the correct order from lowest grade to highest grade?
A. lignite, bituminous, anthracite
B. bituminous, anthracite, lignite
C. arthroscopic, flammable, cretinous
D. lignite, anthracite, bituminous
E. anthracite, bituminous, lignite 

38. Chert is:
A. limestone deposited by groundwater
B. evaporite from seawater
C. limestone having a biochemical origin
D. chemical rock composed of microcrystalline silica
E. something you wear with a tie, like wearing socks with chews 

39. Which one of the following implies deposition in the quietest (least agitated) water?
A. shale
B. sandstone
C. conglomerate
D. breccia 

40. A hard, nonfoliated rock resulting from contact metamorphism is called:
A. marble
B. mica schist
C. phyllite
D. gneiss
E. hornfels 

41. The rock produced by the metamorphism of limestone is:
A. marble
B. mica schist
C. phyllite
D. gneiss
E. hornfels 

42. Minerals that are good indicators of metamorphic environments are called:
A. index minerals
B. placement minerals
C. indicator minerals
D. migmatites

43. How did human activity contribute to the Vaiont Canyon disaster?
A. building of a dam
B. construction of several large buildings on an unstable slope
C. adding irrigation water to clay-rich material
D. blasting rock while building a highway
E. none of the above 

44. Construction of the Alaska oil pipeline was made more difficult because of the presence of permafrost.
A. True B. False 

45. The quantity of water in lakes and streams exceeds the amount stored in glaciers.
A. True B. False 

46. A narrow, V-shaped valley is characteristic of the youthful stage of valley development. 
A. True B. False 

47. Point bars are deposited on the outside of a meander. 
A. True B. False 

48. A 100-year flood occurred on the Yazoo River last year (Jan. 1, 1996 to December 31, 1996). What are the odds of a 100-year flood occurring this year (Jan. 1, 1997 to December 31, 1997)?
A. 1 out of 1
B. 1 out of 10
C. 1 out of 100
D. 1 out of 1000

49. The velocity of a river usually increases downstream. 
A. True B. False 

50. Most streamflow is turbulent. 
A. True B. False